To help understand not only the classes of ATMP but the mechanisms by which various ATMPs may function we have listed some 'good to know' definitions below.

Allogeneic – transplanted tissues or cells that come from a donor and are thus induce some extent of immune rejection

Autologous – transplanted tissues or cells taken from the patient and returned to the patient

Integrating cell therapy – transplanted cells become a part of the body and carry out an essential function long term. Cells are expected to be present, functioning in the body long term.

Temporary cell therapy – the cells do not become a part of the body but provide a temporary functional effect like decreasing inflammation or immune attack. The cells are normally cleared from the body within weeks.

Terminal cell therapy – cells that do not divide are introduced into the body to recover lost damaged functions. Terminal cells are expected to survive in the body as long as that type of cell does. No new cells will be made from injected cells.

Stem cell therapy – cells that are capable of making more copies of themselves as well as of turning into terminal functional cell types are introduced to the body to recover lost damaged functions. For safety reasons these will be only tissue specific stem cells and their terminal derivatives. The tissue specific stem cells are expected to survive in the body long term providing a continuous replenishment of terminal functional cells.

Pluripotent stem cell derived therapies – a cellular therapy, whether terminal or stem cell, where the injected cells are made from pluripotent stem cells. Due to safety reasons the final product of pluripotent stem cell derived therapies do not contain pluripotent stem cells, they have all been turned into either tissue specific stem cells or terminal cells.

Gene modified cell therapy – any cellular therapy where the cells introduced into the body have had their genetic material changed. This change may be to introduce a healthy copy of a diseased gene or to enable the cells to perform a restorative or anti-disease function.

Transplant – take (living tissue or an organ) and implant it in another part of the body or in another body without substantial manipulation and for same essential body function

Regenerative medicine – the process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function

medication – Medications are chemical substances meant for use in medical diagnosis, treatment, cure, or prevention of disease

RMAT – drugs for regenerative medicine advanced therapy (RMAT). ATMP for the FDA.

Pharmaceutical – a compound manufactured for use as a medicinal drug

Biologic – products such as vaccines, blood and blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapy, tissues, and recombinant therapeutic proteins. Most are are complex mixtures that are not easily identified or characterized

Viral vector –

Scaffold –

genome editing

ex vivo gene modifications with viral vectors

in vivo gene modifications with viral vectors

methods that modify gene expression


antigen antibody

T-cell receptor immunotherapy

TILs –

Immune cell therapy

Dendritic cell vaccination

teeth stem cells

amniotic stem cells

mesenchymal stem cells

cord blood stem cells

adult stem cell therapy

stem cell activator




embryo modification